Customer Service & Technical Support
- Free technical supports from Amtron Technology and manufacturers.
- Please contact our service department by E-mail at
firstname.lastname@example.org , Phone (323) 265-8076, or Fax
Drive bays of a computer are commonly used to
house data storage devices such as CD & DVD drives, floppy
or Zip drives, etc. Drive bays can also be used for
front-end card readers, USB ports, I/O bays, and other uses.
drive bay is the standard housing for CD or DVD
drives in modern computer, but is sometimes used for other
devices. Its name does not refer to the width of the bay
itself, but rather to the width of the disks used by the
drives which mounted in the bay. Its dimension is
approximately 1.75" high by 5.75" wide. It is better-known
as 5.25" (5¼-inch) bay in comparison with 3.5" bay.
drive bay is generally used for floppy or Zip drives.
3.5" (3½-inch) drive bay, like its larger counterpart, is
named for diskette dimension. Its actual dimensions is 4"
wide by 1" high.
When installing a device in a
drive bay, it is usually secured with 4 screws that hold the
device in the bay. There are adapters, sometimes called
"3.5"-to-5.25" mounting kit" or "sled", which can be used to
mount a 3.5" device in a 5.25" drive bay. Then, any necessary
power and other cables are routed into and connected to the
rear of the device. The drive bay is usually just big enough
for the device to fit inside.
PCMCIA CardBus PC Card
PCMCIA PC Card:
16-bit PCMCIA PC Card or 32-bit PCMCIA CardBus PC Card is credit card size card. [32-bit
cards can be distinguished by a gold grounding strip on the end that is
inserted into the
PCMCIA CardBus slot. A 16-bit PCMCIA PC card does not have
There are two standard formats of ExpressCard
modules: the ExpressCard/34 module (34mm x 75mm) and the ExpressCard/54
module (54mm x 75mm). Both formats are 5mm thick, the same as the Type II
PCMCIA PC Card. The standard module length is 75mm, which is 10.6mm shorter
than a standard PCMCIA 16-bit PC card or 32-bit CardBus PC Card. Both
ExpressCard module formats use the same
click on picture to enlarge
Dimension Comparison: (PCMCIA CardBus PC Card vs. ExpressCard)
The two ExpressCard module sizes give system
manufacturers greater flexibility than in the past. While the ExpressCard/34
device is better suited to smaller systems, the wider ExpressCard/54 module
can accommodate applications that do not physically fit into the narrower
ExpressCard/34 form factor. Examples include SmartCard readers, CompactFlash
card readers, and 1.8-inch disk drives. In addition to extra space for
components, ExpressCard/54 modules can dissipate more thermal energy than
the smaller module, making it a natural choice for higher performance and
first generation applications.
ExpressCard Slot vs.
PCMCIA PC Card CardBus Slot
ExpressCard Slot: (ExpressCard slot picture shown below)
The slot for the ExpressCard/54
module also supports an ExpressCard/34 module. The wide slot features a
novel guidance mechanism that steers ExpressCard/34 modules into the
connector socket. The ExpressCard Standard also allows extended module
formats to integrate features such as LAN and phone line connectors, or
antennas for wireless cards into their products. Although
PCMCIA CardBus PC Cards
and ExpressCard modules are not designed to function in the same slot,
inserting a PCMCIA 16-bit PC Card or 32-bit CardBus PC Card into an ExpressCard slot or vice versa will not
cause any damage to either part.
CardBus Card Slot: (CardBus slot picture shown below
the two ExpressCard slots)
PCMCIA CardBus slot supports both 16-bit PCMCIA PC Card or 32-bit
PCMCIA CardBus PC Card. However, a 16-bit PCMCIA PC Card slot can
not support 32-bit PCMCIA CardBus PC
PCI is acronym for
Peripheral Component Interconnect. The PCI specifies a computer bus for
attaching peripheral devices to a computer motherboard. The PCI expansion
slot is a local system bus standard and is common in modern PCs, where it
has displaced ISA and VESA Local Bus as the standard expansion bus. PCI
slots are found in both PCs and Macs. The PCI bus will eventually be
succeeded by PCI Express. PCI slots allow numerous types of expansion cards
to be connected inside a computer to extend the computers functionality.
Examples of PCI expansion cards are network card, graphics card, sound card,
expansion slots on a motherboard of PC
Express Expansion Slot
PCI Express (PCI-E
or PCIe) is a computer expansion card interface
format introduced by Intel in 2004. It was designed to
PCI expansion bus, the PCI-X bus, and the
AGP interface. Unlike previous PC expansion interfaces
rather than being a bus, it is structured around point to
point full duplex serial links called lanes. In PCIe 1.1
each lane (the most common version as of 2007) carries 250
MB/s in each direction. PCIe 2.0 doubles this and PCIe 3.0
doubles it again. Each slot carries one, two, four, eight,
sixteen or thirty-two lanes of data between the motherboard
and the card. Lane counts are written with an x prefix e.g.
x1 for a single lane card and x16 for a sixteen lane card.
Thirty-two lanes of 250MB/S gives a maximum transfer rate of
8 GB/s (250 MB/s x 32) in each direction for PCIe 1.1.
However the largest size in common use is x16 giving a
transfer rate of 4 GB/s (250 MB/s x 32) in each direction.
Putting this into perspective, a single lane has nearly
twice the data rate of normal PCI, a four lane slot has a
comparable data rate to the fastest version of PCI-X 1.0,
and an eight lane slot has a data rate comparable to the
fastest version of AGP.
PCIe slots come in a variety of
sizes referred to by the maximum lane count they support. A
larger card will not fit in a smaller slot but a smaller
card can be used in a larger slot.
between any two PCIe devices is known as a
"link", and is built up from a collection of
1 or more lanes. All devices must minimally
support single-lane (x1) link. Devices may
optionally support wider links composed of
2, 4, 8, 12, 16, or 32 lanes. This allows
for very good compatibility in two ways:
- a PCIe
card will physically fit (and work
correctly) in any slot that is at least
as large as it is (e.g. an x1 sized card
will work in any sized slot);
- a slot
of a large physical size (e.g. x16) can
be wired electrically with fewer lanes
(e.g. x1 or x8) as long as it provides
the power and ground connections
required by the larger physical slot
cases, PCIe will negotiate the highest
mutually supported number of lanes. It is
not possible to place a physically larger
PCIe card (e.g. a 16x sized card) into a
smaller slot, even though the two would be
signal-compatible if it were possible.
PCI Express slots (from top to bottom:
x4, x16, x1 and x16), compared to a traditional 32-bit PCI slot
(physical) board connectors come in one of four types: x1, x2, x4,
and x16 (see illustration above) in order to meet different peak
Card Reader Hardware / Software
PCI Interface Card
No special driver is needed when
the PCI interface PCMCIA Card Reader is installed in system running Windows XP or Windows Vista. Please do not use the software driver on the
supplied diskette. The supplied drivers are for Microsoft Windows 95 /98 /98SE
/ME /2000 operating systems. The Windows XP and Vista will detect the
hardware and install the Windows built-in driver automatically.
[If the drivers for older Windows were installed by accident or the
special drivers supplied by other vendors, for a previously purchased
PCMCIA card reader, still exist in the computer system, please
uninstall these "foreign" drivers. Otherwise, these "foreign" drivers
will cause conflicts with the Windows XP/Vista native driver.]
If your computer's Windows XP
or Vista operating system fails to install the Windows built-in PCMCIA driver, please
click here for
If you have problem with Compaq Deskpro EN,
EN (SFF) and EN (SFF-v) Series computers, please upgrade your BIOS (686P2/P3
If BOIS upgrade does not help, please try to insert the PCI interface card to the # 3 slot
from the CPU (the #1 or #2 slot is the 2nd choice). This may resolve some Compaq models'
For Dell Dimension 4100 and other PCs using
Intel 815 chipset motherboard, please upgrade your BIOS to version 06.
If a 32-bit Cardbus card
Windows 98SE may not automatically detect it. Please go to control panel to
"Add Hardware", then the card will be detected.
(1) If an end user ever purchased a
similar PCMCIA card reader from other vendors and installed the special
driver supplied by the vendor, please uninstall the "foreign" driver.
That foreign driver, if still existing in the computer system, will
generate conflicts with the native PCMCIA driver built in Windows XP or
Windows Vista. [To verify it, please check "Device Manager" to see if
there is a strange mark next to the PCMCIA controller: TI PCI1510, Ricoh
R5C475II, ... etc.. If a strange mark shows, it means driver
(2) If the drivers for older Windows 95
/98 /98SE /ME /2000, supplied in the package, were installed by
accident, please uninstall it. Otherwise, these drivers will cause
conflicts with the Windows XP/Vista native PCMCIA driver.
In some rare cases, the Windows native PCMCIA drivers are not present in the
system since end users purchase computers from vendors
with Windows XP or Windows Vista pre-installed and the CD-ROM (a
restore disk) they get with their system is not a full copy of
Windows although they paid in full for Windows. The end users need
to contact their computer system vendor and tell them that they need the
"signed Microsoft Windows XP/Vista drivers for the PCMCIA controller CB1410,
R5C475II, R5C476II, R5C485, R5C486, PCI1410, PCI1510, TI1225, .. etc." depending on
which controller their PCMCIA PC Card Reader/Writer uses.
drivers may already be on a computer system in
"C:\\WINDOWS\system32\DRIVERS\pcmcia.sys", and instructing the
installation routine to that file may help. If an end user has a retail CD-ROM of the Windows XP or Windows
Vista installation disk, then this isn't an issue. Simply inserting
the CD-ROM during the new hardware found routine will allow Windows
to find and install the correct drivers.
- For further helps, please send e-mail request
along with your invoice number to
Panasonic P2 Card Driver Installation
- Insert P2 Card in the card slot of card reader.
- Install the P2 Card
Driver supplied by Panasonic.
- If P2
card driver is not available, please download the correct driver for
Panasonic P2 Card from the Panasonic website at
Panasonic changes the link, please visit their home page and find the latest
download link. Please
do not download the driver for
camcorders or other devices. You need to download the P2 card
driver for Windows PC or Mac.]
the installation procedure described in the
P2 Driver Install
Manual which can be obtained from
the Panasonic website.
- If the P2 Card driver is not successfully
installed. Please install the P2 Card driver
manually. Update the driver of the "Mass Storage Controller" (in "Device
Manager") with "p2cache.inf", the P2 card can be recognized and its data can
be accessed via Windows Explorer
SRAM PC Card
PCMCIA SRAM PC Card does not
come with drivers. Asking SRAM Card or Card Reader vendors to provide SRAM
drivers for computer operating system is like asking drive and disk
manufacturers to provide drivers for floppy disk or CD. It is the operating system (OS)
vendor's responsibility to include support for SRAM PC cards. Unfortunately,
SRAM drivers traditionally included in Windows distributions are not
included in Windows XP. The following process shows a work-around method to
get Windows XP to recognize and use SARM PC Cards with attribute memory. It
does not seem to work with SRAM PC cards without attribute memory. Be
certain your Windows XP is up to date with the latest Service Packs and the
host computer system supports PCMCIA PC Cards.
Please note that we provide this
work-around as a customer service and do not guarantee it will work with
every computer system configuration. For the best solution please see
Third Party Software Packages for SRAM PC Card at below. You can also
purchase an external PC Card Reader, such as one of the CSM
USB2 PC Card Readers, to read/write SRAM cards. These
USB PC Card Readers read and write both types of SRAM cards
(without and with the attribute memory).
- Insert the PCMCIA SRAM card into
the PC Card slot of the computer system
- When the 'Hardware Wizard' appears,
select 'Install from a list or specific location (advanced)'
- Click 'Next'
- Select 'Don't search I will
choose the driver to install'
- Click 'Next'
- Scroll through the list of choice
and select 'PCMCIA and Flash memory devices'
- Click 'Next'
- Double click 'generic' under
the manufacturer listing
- Select 'Generic PCMCIA Memory
Card' from the model listing
- Click 'Next'
- Click the 'Yes' button when the
warning dialog appears, to dismiss it
- Click 'Finish' when the 'Completing
the found new hardware wizard' dialog appears
Third Party Software Packages for SRAM PC Card
work-around method does not work, the end user may consider purchasing
a third party PCMCIA support software package. There are several to choose
from and the following list is provided as a service, not a recommendation
SoftDrive Professional PC Card Storage Device Software is powerful,
extensive and well supported PCMCIA Memory Card software for use with
laptops with built in PC Card slot.
Digital Systems MCE is PCMCIA Memory Card software for use with laptop
slots or PCI based card readers.
publishes several packages, including ones that support WinNT, Win2k
(2000) and WinXP.
USB Reader for PCMCIA SRAM
- For further helps, please send e-mail request
along with your invoice number to
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PO Box 884
Monterey Park, CA 91754 USA
Tel: (323) 265-8076 Fax: